1.0 Background Information
The period immediately after independence saw a large influx of rural-urban migrants seeking economic opportunities in the highly concentrated manufacturing and service industries in major towns. The migrations gave rise to unplanned settlements in towns and cities, which came to be referred to as ‘slums’, ‘urban squatters’ or ‘informal settlements’. The Kenya Government Policy on District Focus for Rural Development (DFRD) (1985)
failed to address the situation, since resources remained concentrated in towns and cities. Unplanned settlements continued to grow to a level where the ‘slum’ populations exceeded ‘non-slum’ city populations. These settlements are characterized by the absence of adequate social amenities such as schools and hospitals. The Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) of the 1980s introduced cost-sharing policies that further marginalized disadvantaged children, resulting in a higher drop-out rate from formal schools. Some dropouts enrolled in adult classes which, despite their low cost, were not tailored to their needs. Limited availability of formal schools in the informal settlements coupled with the high indirect cost of education in government schools, contributed further
to marginalization. In 2003, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MoEST) in collaboration with development partners sought to provide broad policy frameworks to ease the participation of a
wide variety of service providers. These providers were registered under different Government departments such as Office of the President, State Law Office, Social Services and the Ministry of Education. In addition to providing education, the institutions provided a variety of programmes such as health, nutrition, counselling and protective services. A number of the providers however operated without registration. The various providers were instrumental in initiating APBET complementary schools (formerly
known as Non-formal schools). However, because these provisions did not satisfy the formal schools regulations in terms of acreage, staffing, facilities and curriculum they came to be categorized as non-formal schools.
In 2009, the MoEST developed the policy for Alternative Basic Education and Training (APBET) to integrate the education and training institutions into the mainstream programme by ensuring that the ‘non-formal’ education sub-sector is included in the national education statistics. Such integration will ensure that the institutions benefit from MoEST services.
It is within this spirit that the current guidelines have been developed to operationalize the policy framework on APBET. Registration guidelines for alternative provision of basic education and training (APBET) 9
2.0 Justification
a) Section 76 of the Basic Education Act of 2013 provides that a person shall not offer basic education in Kenya unless that person is accredited and registered as provided for under the Act.
b) Owing to poverty, hardship and challenges in the urban informal settlements and other pockets of poverty, there exists a cadre of schools that cannot meet registration criteria for regular public or private institutions.
c) The Basic Education Act of 2013, Section 95 (3)(i) and (j) provide that the Cabinet Secretary may, upon consultation with the National Education Board, prescribe regulations on how schools shall be classified, and make different provisions with respect to different classes or kinds of schools, impose conditions and make exemptions.
d) The APBE&T Policy of 2009 requires all institutions providing alternative delivery of education and training to be registered with the MoEST.
e) The APBE&T Policy provides for registration or attachment to a registered institution, as a pre-requisite for any alternative learning institution or provision to benefit from resource allocation from the government.
f) In addition, registration of APBE&T institutions will enhance accuracy of Education Management Information System (EMIS) data, which is important for national planning.
g) Registration with the MoEST is a requirement for schools entering candidates fornational examinations.
h) Once registered, the provision and coordination of support to the institutions will be enhanced.
All APBE&T institutions are established for the provision of basic education or vocational training to children and youth who, due to difficult circumstances, are unable to access public or private schools in informal settlements and other hard to reach areas. These institutions complement the government’s efforts to provide education and training for all.